This thesis is about difficulties in reading english. The full name of my thesis is “A STUDY OF THE DIFFICULTIES IN READING ENGLISH AT SECONDARY SCHOOL”
A STUDY OF THE DIFFICULTIES IN READING ENGLISH AT SECONDARY SCHOOL
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A STUDY OF THE DIFFICULTIES IN READING ENGLISH AT SECONDARY SCHOOL
Roll No. BO646726
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD
The research project attached here, titled: “A Study of The Difficulties in Reading English at Secondary School” Proposed and submitted by Waqar Younas Roll no. BO646726 in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of B.Ed. (1.5 year) (Higher Education) is hereby accepted.
Supervisor: ________________________ (Signature)
(Mian Ahmad Ali)
Evaluator: ________________________ (Signature)
(Rana Abdul Shakoor)
I Waqar Younas s/o Muhammad Younas Roll No. BO646726 Registration # 17-POA-05628. A student of B.Ed. (1.5 year) program (Teacher Education) at Allama Iqbal Open University do hereby solemnly declare that the research project entitled, “A Study of The Difficulties in Reading English at Secondary School” submitted by me in partial fulfillment of B.Ed. (1.5 year) program, is my original work, and has not been submitted or published earlier. I also solemnly declare that it shall not, in future, be submitted by me for obtaining any other degree from this or any other university or institution.
Date: May, 2019 Signature of Candidate
Firstly I thank the Allah Almighty for giving me the strength, wisdom and good health to complete this research.
I also thank my supervisor, Mian Ahmad Ali for his fair and firm guidance.
I also would like to express my gratitude to my great teacher Saleem Akhtar, for his positive attitude and insightful advices during times of my study. He never frustrated my dreams.
Lastly, I would like to thank the secondary level students, head teachers and teachers who participated in this study, for their co-operation and patience.
This study aims at figuring out the most reading difficulties in English and how to deal with them for the 10th graders in Okara District as perceived by teachers of English and students as well. The study examines the effect of teachers’ variables (gender, qualification, and years of experience), and the effect of student’s variable (gender) on having reading difficulties in English and how to deal with them. In order to achieve the study objectives, the researcher developed a two different data collection instruments: questionnaires and an interviews. The researcher conducted this study on the 10th grade students who are learning English as a foreign language and their teachers of English in Okara District by using a stratified random sample. The whole population consisted of (200) students (150) males and (50) females, also 40 teachers, (25) males and (15) females, and (200) parents (160) males and (40) females. The sample consisted of the whole population. The result of this study showed that reading difficulties faced by students in learning English resulting from student’s reading behaviors were high. In the addition, the content, teaching aids and teaching methods had a significant effect on the reading difficulties. In the light of the findings of the study, the researcher recommended holding training courses for the teachers to provide them with sufficient experience to teach their students the reading skill in the right way.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER 1 Page No. INTRODUCTION 9
1.1 Statement of the problem 11
1.2 Objectives of the Study 11
1.3 Significance of the Study 12
1.4 Research Questions 12
1.5 Difficulties with Reading 12
1.6 Research Design 12
1.6.1 Population 12
1.6.2 Sample 13
1.6.3 Research Tools 13
1.6.4 Methodology 13
1.6.5 Data Analysis 13
1.6.6 Finding Conclusions and Recommendation 13
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 14
2.1 Issues that reason difficulty in Reading 14
2.1.1 Issues Attribute to Phonological Awareness 14
2.1.2 Issues Attribute to Changes Aimed L1 and L2 15
2.1.3 Issues Attribute to Teacher, Students and Methodology 15
220.127.116.11 Teachers 15
18.104.22.168 Students 16
22.214.171.124 Methodology 17
2.2 Summary 19
RESEARCH METHDOLOGY 20
3.1 Methodology 20
3.1.1 Research Questions 20
3.1.2 Population of the Study 20
3.2 Sample of the Study 20
3.2.1 Instrumentation 23
3.2.2 Validity of the Questionnaire 24
3.2.3 Validity of the Interview 25
3.2.4 Reliability of the Questionnaire 25
3.3 Study Design 25
3.3.1 Variables of the Study 26
3.4 Data Analysis 26
3.5 Statistical Analysis 26
3.6 Ethical Issues 27
3.7 Summary 27
DATA ANALYSIS 28
4.1 Questionnaire for Students 28
4.2 Questionnaire for Teachers 31
4.3 Questionnaire for Parents 35
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 38
5.1 Discussion 38
5.1.1 First: Discussion of the Results of the first Question 38
5.1.2 Second: Discussion of the Results of the second Question 39
5.1.3 Third: Discussion of the Results of the third Question 40
5.1.4 Four: Discussion of the Results of the four Question 40
5.2 Conclusion 40
5.3 Recommendations 41
Appendix A: Questionnaire for Students 44
Appendix B: Questionnaire for Teachers 45
Appendix C: Questionnaire for Parents 46
English reading is the basic problem of all students at secondary levels.
Reading helps in psychological development and is known to inspire the muscles of the eyes. Reading in an action that includes larger levels of attention and enhances to the informal ability of the bookworm. It is a lenience that improves the knowledge attained constantly. The routine of the reading also helps bibliophiles to determine new words and idioms that they arise across in daily discussions. The routine can develop a strong habit and enhances to the evidence available on many topic. It helps us to stop in attach with modern authors and makes us penetrating to worldwide issues (Van, 2009).
“Of all the skills students learn, reading is arguably one of the most important learning skill. Today especially in the developed world, it is considered a fundamental skill required for success. Unfortunately for many children with reading difficulties, learning to read is one of the most frustrating activities they will ever face. All too often, the barriers they face overshadow their desire to read, without proper guidance, they never overcome them” (Smith, 1994).
Students can know how their instructors teach reading. In their conversation about reading, numerous of them clarified that certain school teachers request the entire class to replication after them, formerly one after another to sound out words. Sometime they study for the session and then inquire students one after another to study loudly. Sometime they attention on every single word, how it is spoken, and what it method. They are the right that intersects to give instantaneous correction. For numerous of them, scholar communication is always seen at as a sound, mix-up, and disruption until them then until the further student’s knowledge. Just study fast with exact pronunciation, and you will be a good reader. On this base, one should accomplish that there is a confusion of that what is reading and what is reading process. So, students will find reading English is a very complex ability, and that’s why, they will feel a lot of problems with it. Poor readers understand this point only when they meet big reading projects when they arrive in a university (Younis, 2005).
Actually, the attendance of reading problems become reasons in schools establishes a serious issues at stages of the academic ranking. Maybe the necessity for corrective effort one it is current, establishes such an insistent issues, it generally tends to obtain more notice than averting measures. It is not unusual to discovery school managers pointing with arrogance to their corrective programs although at the previous, little importance is located upon proof of problems in reading English before it happens (Al-Kilani and Maqutash, 2002).
Every year, thousands of students ready to receive specific guidelines in reading for example they joint school. While maximum of those students study to read with virtual ease, closely 10% have important trouble acquiring capable reading abilities as an outcome of their reading difficulties (Schroeder, 2005).
“Reading difficulties nearly occur on a continuum, meaning that there is a great number of students who experience reading difficulties. There are those students who are diagnosed whit a learning difficulty. Also there is an even larger group of students who do not have diagnoses, but who need good reading assistance. Many students make effort and struggle with reading. A study estimated that about 10 million students have difficulties in reading. The good news is that 90 to 95 percent of reading impaired student can overcome their difficulties if they receive good and suitable remediation at early ages” (Kibby and Hynd, 2001).
Reading problem is an elusive and problematic condition to define. This is right since there are no some gears which are accurately similar thus that they do procedure a separate group in the instructive scene. Not all scholars who cannot study well are restricted readers. Just specific of them are. Further, several of the scholars who are apparently progressing justly well are in actuality reading trouble cases (Al-Khuli, 2000).
Reading issues has many features such as problems in one word reading, early problems decoding or discussion out words, problems reading vision words, inadequate phonological dispensation, and the thoughtful that sentences are included of words, talking are ready for the syllables and syllables are ready for the individual noises or phonemes, easy-to-read or accessible language problems and problems with understanding. The processing problems can also be exposed in spelling and writing. Written appearance disability and arithmetic difficulty and generally found in mixture with a reading trouble (Paris, 2005).
Talented reading ability is principal to success. If the students are not best readers, they are in risk for behavior, social theoretical and emotive problems English teachers can benefit their students to grow free of disappointment in reading (reading trouble) by superseding early and if intensive and general instruction. Maximum teachers would dear to support students create a daily routine of reading through a wide variability of texts. Furthermore, good booklovers tend to be essentially motivated to study, and the quantity of time they devote reading is highly correlated with their reading proficiency and overall academic success across all area of study. Students who are fewer encouraged to study, and who expend less time working their reading abilities, often knowledge discourage academic problems. Enthusiasm to read individually seems designate a key module of reading achievement and would be an aim of reading training. Tutors are not impartial responsible for as long as training in the mechanism of transcript and understanding, they furthermore carry accountability for introducing in totally students a wish to study individually from a change of sources (Gresten and Geva, 2005).
- Statement of the problem
From the scholar’s knowledge as an instructor, he can be establish that several Pakistan learners who study English undergo since reading and feel it difficult. This is why because English is not our native language. Such as misappropriation of manner, punition, symbols and other reading difficulties.
In trade with these difficulties the researcher attentive on reading problems that are handled by the secondary schoolboys and their tutors of English irritating to find certain remedies and references for the upcoming generation.
- Objectives of the study
- To point out problems faced by students during English reading.
- To explore the reasons of difficulties in English.
- Try to get knowledge about understanding level of secondary students about English.
- How much spell problems are existing in English reading?
- What is the best method to overcome the difficulties in English reading?
- Significance of the study
The significance of the education rising from the significance of finding medicines for reading difficulties because maximum of the learners and the tutors of English protest about reading problems such as understanding difficulties, coding, interpreting between other difficulties. The scholar trusts that the consequences of this study will be helpful to teachers along with students who study English as external language.
- Research Questions
- What are the difficulties in reading English that face the secondary graders students?
- What are the projected cures for the reading problems in English the secondary students?
- What are the difficulties in reading English that faced the 10th graders students?
- Are there any important differences in reading English difficulties, as perceived by 10th grade students?
- Difficulties with Reading
Actually, a lot of parents want to know that where problem is existing regarding reading difficulties for their children. Though difficulties may happen in any zone and around the many problems with reading, interpreting, comprehension, retaining are the backgrounds of reading difficulties in the opinion of many specialists.
- Research Design
Custody in opinion the purpose of study, study scheme was accept and complete surveys were discrete in nominated Govt. schools. Single of the surveys was for the students who are attainment learning from this institutes. Second surveys provided to the blood relation of the scholars of schools. Third surveys was for the training staff of these institutes.
The population of study consists of
- Students getting education in Govt. Schools in nearby of Hujra city.
- Parents of students studying in these schools.
- Teachers of Public sector schools.
The sample of the study which consisted of 40 males and females teachers in the public schools in Okara District and 200 male and female of 10th grade students were chosen as a stratified random sample from the whole population. The sample represented 10% of the whole population in secondary public schools in Okara District. The questionnaire was distributed to and to and collected from all English language public secondary school of English and their 10th grade students. The data in the entire questionnaire was analyzed using by Excel.
50 students, 50 parents and 10 teachers were selected from every school. Total 440 persons of the study.
The selected schools are given below:
- GHS Bhutta Muhabbat.
- GHS Rajowal.
- GHS Hujra Shah Muqeem.
- GHS Shergarh.
- Research Tools
Quantitative data was collected with the help of following tools.
Questionnaires were given in all four schools. For completion of this work 10 days were given.
Questionnaires were collected from respondents and the analysis was made to find out conclusions and recommendation.
- Data Analysis
After data collection and analysis was carried out. Since it was composed by questionnaires the researcher has used the percentage formula.
Finally, the researcher concluded the answer of the all questionnaires through tables and graphs. The data was tabulated, interpreted and analyze for results.
- Finding Conclusions and Recommendation
On the basis of data analysis finding, conclusions and recommendation were made.
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
Aimed at sake of simplification and simplicity, the researcher organized this chapter topically; rendering to linked topics of this reading. Those subjects contain common and universal studies that compact with reading problems, and the not the same proposed mixtures for this difficulties.
The 2nd grouping surveyed by the scholar in this part which is around the preparations for reading difficulties organized chronologically.
2.1 Issues that reason difficulty in Reading
2.1.1 Issues Attribute to Phonological Awareness
Several educationalists and scholars tried to clarify the clue of reading problems by relating it by phonological wakefulness. For example Beck and McKeown (2009) specified that it does not difficulty if the pupils has an aware information of the dialog sounds in arguments since a verbal language does not need this. By little courtesy agreed to sounds, talking is shaped and understood mechanically. But, phonological wakefulness is the aware consciousness of the noises of language. It is the skill to replicate on the hums in words alone from the sense of words. While Savage, Pillay and Melidona (2008) famous the English is well-known to be onward uneven and backward uneven for together reading and meaning. Accordingly, phonological translating abilities remain a large interference for reading and meaning in English language.
Puolakanaho et al. (2008) famous that studies lead in orthographically consistent languages, for example Italian, Greek and Finnish have exposed that students who learning reading ability can transfer the importance from programming accuracy towards translating fluency all through their 1st and 2nd school ages in such language atmospheres. In difference, in more uneven language for example Danish English, children’s correctness varies in the correctness chapter of reading, with the ultimate chapter taking place far later. They also stated that current longitudinal studies specified that latter information, phonological consciousness, short term recollection and fast serial identification rapidity are the finest predicators of upcoming reading success.
In a study region by Ziegler and Goswani (2005) exposed.
That several studies on valuation and teaching specified that there are important prognosticators of advanced reading attainment for example phonemic awareness, spoken reading eloquence and ABC knowledge. Inappropriately, there has been fewer importance on language and understanding as yet maybe because of the trouble in measuring and instruction these abilities to kids who are start to read. However Liow and Lau (2006) experimental that phonemic information cannot be intended for reading meaning by fluent English language children away, while it is intended for reading and meaning by Kindergarten (pre-schools) in North America. This proposes that the effect of a student’s home-based language on English literacy growth is not unitary, and irritated language transfer can have negative in addition to positive importance.
In conclusion, Manis, Lindsey and Bailey (2004), originate that a reasoning factor similar phonemic consciousness may be careful an important issue that leading to reading problems L2 learners, but, Kindergartners’ L1 phonemic consciousness expected English letter-word ID in the 2nd grade.
2.1.2 Issues Attribute to Changes amid L1 and L2
Actually, speaking about reading difficulties of Pakistan’s students, investigators used to characteristic these difficulties to change between L1 and L2. For example, Foorman and Torgesen (2001) responsible both L1 and L2, but not the scholars their English teachers. Let’s say, lacking understanding, slow reading, incapability to find main ideas, over-all need on the design to catch the sense, lacking language capability, etc, are all not certainly to be credited to changes amid L1 and L2. But, Gottardo (2002) maintained the idea that spoken language in L1 and/or L2 aids in producing reading problematic.
2.1.3 Issues Attribute to Teachers, Students and Methodology
Bell (2001) specified that instructors of English can help reading done positive outcome by making suitable air in every classroom. Helpful teachers are accurate, challenging to support their students and continuously creation the greatest to them. As well, Maggi (2004) saw that the character of the English teachers himself is vital. She can have optimistic or bad effect upon development in knowledge to read. Students are privileged really if their English instructors are so able, well qualified and understanding. This continues good learners-English teacher’s contacts and is talented to accomplish a correct balance in developed abilities and skills in the reading package.
Also, Younis (2005) worried the outcome of English teachers’ technique of coaching upon his students. An English teacher behavior, particularly when he has a bad outlook toward a specific pupil, may reason or strengthen the expressive stress related with his disappointment in reading.
Alison, (2001) illustrious that the student who is careful disabled for the reason that he is not as actual in reading such as it can be predictable of him. The maximum understandable example of this organization is the youngster who has little oral intellect. Dum (2009) exposed that every student necessity be talented to wisdom that his ability in reading is growing and that the initiative is value his struggle. He additional that if completely the abilities and skills needed for development toward reading adulthood are to be learnt, the learner necessity be interested and active; unique who works easily at his personal level of achievement and is too a relaxed learner.
Too Gay (2011) displayed that reading difficult develops because single or extra issues in a scholar himself or his environs, or together avoid him from attainment his learning ability. This trouble may happen at any phase of a youngster’s school vocation from first score up done high levels.
However Catts and Hogan (2003) specified that reading stayed understood as approximately done by one’s judgments, and so, a shortfall in visual observation, was the main issue that caused trouble in reading. Further than the “common sense” request of this opinion, the recurrent reports of reverse mistakes in unfortunate readers have secure a visual-based description of reading incapacities.
Donnell and Wood (1999) specified three types of issues that affect understanding. 1st of all, (the reader), student’s notice/motivation, facility and metacognition, 2nd, (the text) for instance, organization, idea thickness, and style, 3rd (readability) for example, size of sentences and trouble of language. If the scholars do not consume the above types of information, and the English instructors are ignorant of these issues, then around will be analysis trouble and understanding difficulty.
In an education done by Andrade (2011), he established the requirement of capable reading in the 10th grade. He originate that over-all reading understanding was meaningfully related to attainment in every of the contented subject suppose mathematic, moreover, to a significant degree, reading contented subject is connected ability in the basal reading package.
In difference, Shamaila (2005) specified that the discovery and improvement of reading problems should remain an important part of customize teaching in reading. However Abo Ghrarh (1999) specified that reading trouble is due mostly to educational issues. But, any organizational policy which avoids enough individualization of teaching, including importance upon reading willingness, will prevent actual development in reading.
In calculation, many study proposal the best indication of the influence of teaching supports on reading. For instance, Abdel Aziz (2005) must that certain of reading problems may be fitting to the instruction aids for example (tape helped reading, flash cards, pictures …etc), he further that these instruction aids play causative part in reading problems particularly if the linguistic is a external one. In compare, Riyad (2006) said that scholars with insufficiencies in language, syntax, and text dispensation will most surely have problems extracting sense from published text, hence you cannot about that the instruction aids help student to get free of the understanding difficulties.
Issa (2006) stated that the changed teaching techniques in understanding that some English teachers custom during the message that can be better defined as a co-requisite to knowledge to read.
Aqeel (2007) meant at reading the dissimilar things of the dual techniques (teaching or drill) in training English as an External Language continuously classroom communication for students, in addition their success in reading. He renowned that some of the maximum important aims for reading problems is the short level of analysis from the 1st phase of the learner and the absence of care to grow this ability.
Al-Shareef (2000) lead an education to note the part of the instructor and the model in reading trouble. The study decided that English linguistic syllabus for the subordinate stage emphases on reading abilities abstemiously and this syllabus doesn’t consume an allocation of actions and movements which recover the reading abilities. Furthermore, the regular time for working the reading ability is not sufficient so students can not exercise the reading ability along with other ability.
Al Khaseefan (2000) observed that here are instructors of English who didn’t use dissimilar techniques and methods which aid the students to classify the problematic words in still reading, and too didn’t use techniques of instruction which aid students establishing what they study. That is the instructor plays a significant part in the reading problems.
Khankar (2001) lead a reading which meant to classify the most significant difficulties of the English syllabus for secondary school for teen-ager as supposed by the instructors. He highlighted the significance of by English external the classroom. Furthermore, Khankar displayed that teachers must provide students the occasion to exercise the ability of reading done various actions.
Abdel Aziz (2005) advised motivation and heartening teachers to take teaching courses in how to communicate reading ability. He also presented that students’ leanings towards education English is feeble and an allocation of them dislike learning English, also ignoring the actions external the classroom.
Al-Ageel (2006) presented that the maximum important causes for reading trouble between students remain the week substance from the 1st stages of institute, the privation of attention by parents to the grow the reading ability for their kids, the privation of help between the parents as well as the school. Moreover he specified that some of the most significant causes for the reading trouble among students are the lacking of school books. Also, Al-Zouhairi (2008) specified that students, instructors teaching techniques are the utmost significant reasons of reading trouble.
Such as observed earlier, it can stay found that several of these lessons agreed on the outcome of phonological sentience on understanding, others did not decide on this however on the changes among L1 and L2, then the up-to-date one shed glows on the learning issues (teachers, students, and methodology) which disturb reading ability.
Concluded reviewing of connected literature, the investigator decides that around is no any reason for all trouble, the possible reasons of reading trouble are various. A single issue seldom reasons reading trouble. In all however the mildest bags, the trouble is owing to a multiple of connected conditions. That is understanding difficulty is owing to multiple reasons.
This section was dedicated to identify the stages and the procedure taken in resonant out the investigation endeavor. The researcher offerings research plan, learning population and model, tool validity and consistency, data collection techniques, and the arithmetical analysis.
Descriptive numerical analysis was rummage-sale to attain the main resolution of the learning and to reply the research requests.
3.1.1 Research Questions
3.1.2 Population of the study
The population of the reading involved of completely the subordinate English linguistic teacher and their 10th class students in the Govt schools in Tehsil Depalpur, for the school year 2017/2018. The whole number of subordinate English linguistic in this area was 40 numbers, 25 of them were males and 15 were females. Also, the total sum of the 10th grade students was 200 numbers; 150 of them were males and 50 were females. And also the total sum of the parents of 10th grade students was 200 numbers; 160 of them were males and 40 were females.
3.2 Sample of the study
The sample of the reading which involved of 40 males and females teachers in the public schools’ in Tehsil Depalpur and 200 male and female of 10th grade students and 200 of their parents were selected as a stratified casual sample from the total population. The sample signified (8.90%) of the total population in secondary public school in Tehsil Depalpur. The questionnaire remained distributed to and composed from totally English linguistic public secondary school instructors of English also their 10th grade students. The data in the whole questionnaire was studied using the Excel.
The model was distributed allowing to autonomous variables of accused, gender, requirement and experience.
Table (1): The Sample Distributed Due to Respondents
|Teachers of English||40||9.09%|
|10th Grade Students||200||45.45%|
|Parents of the Students||200||45.45%|
As seen from the above table, the study frequencies are: (40) for the teachers, (200) for students and (200) for the parents which means that the teacher composed 9.09% of the total of the study sample, while students were 45.45% and the total of the study sample. While parents 45.45%.
- Gender Variable
Table (2): Distribution of the sample due to Gender
The Graph is created for the teachers
As seen the above graph, the study frequencies for the teachers are 25 for the males that is 62% and 5 for the females that is 38% and the total numbers of the all teachers are 40 and the percentage 100%.
The Graph is created for the 10th Grade Students
As seen the above graph, the study frequencies for the students are 150 for the males that is 75% and 50 for the females that is 25% and the total numbers of the all students are 200 and the percentage 100%.
The Graph is created for the Parents of Students
As seen the above graph, the study frequencies for the students are 160 for the males that is 80% and 40 for the females that is 20% and the total numbers of the all students are 200 and the percentage 100%.
- Qualification Variable
Table (3): Distribution of the sample Due to Qualification (as Perceived by Teachers)
As seen from the above table, the frequency are: (14) for the F.A, (10) for the B.A, (08) for the B.A/B.Ed, (05) of the M.A and (03) of the M.A/M. Phil. While the total (40) for all frequency.
- Years of Experience variable
Table (4): Distribution of the sample Due to Years of Experience (as Perceived by Teachers)
|Years of Experience||Frequency||Percent|
|Less than 5 years||10||25%|
|More than 10 years||15||37.5%|
As seen from the above table, less than 5 years take 25%, 5-10 years take 37.5% and more than 10 years 37.5%, while the total Frequencies were 4.
The teachers’ perspective towards the reading difficulties in English and how to deal with them were investigated through two different data collection methods: a questionnaire and interviews. Whereas, the students’ perspective towards the reading difficulties in English and how to deal with them were investigated through one data collection method: a questionnaire.
Data were collected via questionnaire developed in English (for the teachers) and English translated into Pakistan ‘sic language (for the students) of respondents (Pakistan ‘sic) that consist of the questionnaire are organized into five parts:
* The first part of the questionnaire included a description and the importance of the study; moreover, this part assured the confidentiality of the information.
* The second part collected demographic information including (gender, qualification, and years of experience).
* The third part is scale that measure the reading difficulties in English and how to deal with them as perceived by English teachers and students in Okara District.
Second the current study also used interviews as a second data method. The qualitative analysis method was used to analyze (14) teachers’ responses to the interview questions.
The interviews were held by the researcher herself. It consisted of (7) questions. It was conducted after reviewing related literature and considering a jury in the field of T suggestions. (14) Interviewees were selected randomly, males and every interview lasted for 15 minutes. They were given freedom to answer the questions.
3.2.2 Validity of the Questionnaire:
The questionnaire was developed by the researcher after reading the relevant literature.
To ensure that the content of the questionnaire is valid, the questionnaire was handed to a jury of five professional doctors in the field of T at An-Najah National University and at Pakistan’s American University – Jenin. The specialists were asked to evaluate the appropriateness of the questionnaire to the whole purpose of the study.
The accepted the terms of the questionnaire in general but suggested some modifications in the vocabulary. For example, they suggested using “related to” instead of “because of”, “district” instead of “governorate”; they also suggested other modifications related to the items of the questionnaire for example, they suggested using (lacking of diversity) instead of (lacking of different reading strategies), (I feel shame during practice reading) instead of (I feel afraid of students laugh). They also deleted (lacking of self-confidence) from the questionnaire that distributed to the students. Moreover, proofread the manuscript for mistakes in the mechanics of writing.
3.2.3 Validity of the Interview:
In the term of the second study tool (interview) validity, the researcher consulted jury in T field and made some modifications and development. Such as, firstly, reducing the number of questions to 7 instead of 14. Secondly, changing the last question to be an open ended question as follow: How does using a lot of (L1) affect (L2) reading skills?
3.2.4 Reliability of the Questionnaire:
Reliability analysis allows studying the properties of measurement scales and the items that make them up. The Reliability Analysis procedure calculates a number of commonly used measures of scale reliability and also provides information about the relationships between individual items in the scale; Cronbach Alpha reached 0.82 which is considered to be suitable for the purpose of this study.
3.3 Study Design:
This research is a quantitative design utilizing a survey method. This study method involves the use of a self-administered questionnaire designed to gather specific data via a self-reporting system. The framework is based on the reading difficulties and how to deal with them as perceived by teachers of English and 10th grade students in Okara District. The questionnaires allowed for confidentiality in an effort to encourage more honest responses. A descriptive cross-sectional design was adapted for the current study. Cross sectional designs provide information about a situation that exists at a particular time. It employs a descriptive and inferential design. The primary goal is to provide a complete description as possible, while the cross sectional obtained on individuals at a fixed event during life.
3.3.1 Variables of the study:
- Dependent variables: The reading difficulties in English and how to deal with the as perceived by teachers and students in District Okara.
- Independent variables: Socio demographic data that include:
– Gender: gender variables include two levels (males, females).
(For teachers and students).
– Qualification: qualification variables include three levels (Diploma, B.A and M.A).
(For teachers only).
– Experience: experience variables includes three levels (less than 5 years, 5-10 years and more than 10 years).
3.4 Data Analysis
In order to analyze the data, the researcher used statistical techniques the Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS), means, standard deviations and percentages.
For data analysis, the researcher used the following percentages:
- 80 – 100% is very high degree of response.
- 70 – 79.9% is high degree of response.
- 60 – 69.9% is moderate degree of response.
- 50 – 59.9% is low degree of response.
- Less than 50% is very low degree of response.
3.5 Statistical Analysis:
Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 17 was used for data analysis. Various statistical processes were used including means; frequencies, one way ANOVA test, and (T) test were used to determine variation significance. A (P-value) of less than or equal to (0.05) was used to test the significance of the study hypothesis.
3.6 Ethical Issue:
Letters of agreement and permission from (Institution Research Board IRB) from An Najah National University was taken and permission letters sent to PME to seek their participation in this study. In addition, 10th grade English students and teachers of English were informed about the purpose of the study before conducting the interview and were told that their participation will be voluntary. Furthermore, explanation about the aim of the study done by the researcher, consent form was prepared on the first page of questionnaire and the participant allowed reading the consent before they answer the questions. The participants were informed that their information is for research purposes and will be kept secret and there is no need to give their names. Furthermore the participants were informed that participation will be optional.
This chapter dealt with the methodology and design of the study. Moreover, the researcher presented the population distribution and the sample in accordance with the study variables (respondent, gender, qualification, and years of experience). Additionally, the researcher tested the validity and reliability of the instrument used. Finally, the chapter displayed the procedures followed in conducting the study.
The purpose of this chapter is to report the reading difficulties in English and how to deal with them as perceived by English teachers and students in Okara District. Moreover, this chapter will also analyze the difficulties in reading that faced 10th graders as perceived by English teachers and students in Okara District and the role of the study variables (gender, year of experience and qualification) on the reading difficulties in English and how to deal with them as perceived by English teachers and students in Okara District.
4.1 Questionnaire for Students
- Students show the Inability to distinguish sounds.
|To some content||0||0%|
The above table shows that during the English Reading 20% Students show the Inability to distinguish sounds and 80% answered no.
- Students Read texts in an Intermittent way.
|To some content||0||0%|
The above table shows that during the English Reading 15% Students Read texts in an Intermittent way and 75% answered no.
- Students feel shame during the practice of reading.
|To some content||0||0%|
The above table shows that during the English Reading 22.5% Students feel shame during the practice of reading and 77.5% answered no.
- Students show the Inability to pronounce the letters.
|To some content||0||0%|
The above table shows that during the English Reading 17.5% Students show the Inability to pronounce the letters and 82.5% answered no.
- Students tend to forget the forms of words that have already been learned.
|To some content||0||0%|
The above table shows that during the English Reading 25% Students tend to forget the forms of words that have already been learned and 75% answered no.
- Students tend to Ignore reading English at home.
|To some content||0||0%|
The above table shows that during the English Reading 7.5% Students tend to Ignore reading English at home and 92.5% answered no.
- Students Lack of self-motivation.
|To some content||0||0%|
The above table shows that during the English Reading 10% Students Lack of self-motivation and 90% answered no.
- Students show the Inability to correct the errors.
|To some content||0||0%|
The above table shows that during the English Reading 15% Students show the Inability to correct the errors and 75% answered no.
- Students tend to stutter in the pronunciation of words.
|To some content||0||0%|
The above table shows that during the English Reading 25% Students tend to stutter in the pronunciation of words and 75% answered no.
- Students have little knowledge of English vocabulary.
|To some content||0||0%|
The above table shows that during the English Reading 30% Students have little knowledge of English vocabulary and 70% answered no.
- Students tent to write the pronunciation of the English word in Pakistan ‘sic.
|To some content||0||0%|
The above table shows that during the English Reading 12.5% Students tent to write the pronunciation of the English word in Pakistan ‘sic and 87.5% answered no.
4.2 Questionnaires for Teachers
- Teachers should pronounce words clearly.
The above table the 95% teachers strongly agree that Teachers should pronounce words clearly and 5% uncertain.
- Students Read texts repeatedly.
The above table the 97.5% teachers strongly agree that Students Read texts repeatedly and 2.5% uncertain.
- Students read texts loudly to overcome shame during reading.
The above table the 97% teachers strongly agree that Students read texts loudly to overcome shame during reading and 3% uncertain.
- Teachers should write words on the board to overcome Students Forgetting the forms of words.
The above table the 95% teachers strongly agree that Teachers should write words on the board to overcome Students Forgetting the forms of words and 5% uncertain and the total percentage is 100%.
- Teachers should give students assignments that involve reading English at home.
The above table the 97.5% teachers strongly agree that Teachers should give students assignments that involve reading English at home and 2.25% uncertain and the total percentage is 100%.
- Teachers should improve Students self-motivation.
The above table the 90% teachers strongly agree that Teachers should improve Students self-motivation and 10% uncertain and the total percentage is 100%.
- Teachers should increase Students English vocabulary.
The above table the 97.5% teachers strongly agree that Teachers should increase Students English vocabulary and 2.5% uncertain and the total percentage is 100%.
- Containing some mysterious words.
The above table the 95% teachers strongly agree that containing some mysterious words and 5% uncertain and the total percentage is 100%.
- Having little exercise about reading.
The above table the 95% teachers strongly agree that having little exercise about reading and 5% uncertain and the total percentage is 100%.
4.3 Questionnaire for Parents
- By which area your children coming for education?
50% parents said that they are living in village. 35% were by the city and 15% were others. It shows that most of students come from villages very less students some by the city area.
- Are your children studying in this school?
|To some content||0||0%|
All parents answer yes that their children studying in this school. So the table shows 100% of all parents.
- Are you attending parent teacher meetings held in school?
|To some content||0||0%|
The above table indicated that 60% of parents were attending the PTM while 40% said no, they were not attending the meetings.
- Are you supporting in reading English matters with teachers?
|To some content||15||7.5%|
The above table shows that 75% parents answered yes they are supporting with their teachers in reading English matter, 17.5% parents answered no and 7.5% say to some content.
- There is a good relationship between parents and school staff?
In the above table we can see that 80% people were strongly agree while 11% were uncertain but 9% parents said no there was no good relationship between parents and teachers.
- Can parents help to solve their children in reading English difficulties?
Parents accepted that we could help to solve the reading English difficulties the above table shows the results of their answer. 60% were agree 20% uncertain while only 20% were disagree.
- Parents should be allow to visit in school to check the educational improvement regarding the reading English. Are you agree with it?
Parents were agree that they should be allow to visit in school to check the educational improvement regarding reading English. The ratio of agree was 60% while 25% uncertain and 15% disagree.
- Are your children self-reading at home?
75% parents were accepted that their children self-reading at home 10% disagree and 15% parents were uncertain.
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Discussion of results will be presented as follows:
The first part discusses results related to the study question. The second part discusses the result of the study hypothesis and the role of the variables of (gender, qualification) in reading difficulties as perceived by teachers of English and 10th grade English students in Okara District.
1.5.1 First: Discussion of the Results of the first Question:
What are the difficulties in reading English that face the secondary graders students?
- After analyzing the data, the means and percentages of each item, and total score of each domain were used.
- For the total score of the reading difficulties the faced 10th grade students as perceived by students in English in Okara District due to due to students’ reading behaviors, the degree was very high were the percentage of response was 89.00%.
- The researcher thinks that this result is due to teachers themselves or their methods of teaching reading during the lesson, for example, paying little attention to students’ weakness in reading, giving inadequate concern in making coherence between reading skill and other language skills, giving little opportunity for the student to practice reading and giving little opportunity for the student to practice reading. All these things will affect the students reading behavior especially their self-motivation.
- This result is attribute to the idea that students’ trends towards leaning English is weak and a lot of them hate learning English, besides ignoring the activities outside the classroom (Abdel Aziz, 2005).
- This goes in the line with Gay (2011) observation that showed that reading problem develops because one or more factors in a student himself or his environment or both prevent him from reaching his learning capacity.
- Dunn (2007) revealed that each student must able to sense that his proficiency in reading in increasing and that the enterprise is worth his effort. Aqeel (2007) noted that one of the most important reasons for reading difficulties is the low level of reading from the first stage of the pupil and the lack of attention to develop this skill.
- Moreover, Al-Zouhairi (2008) clarified that the student is one of the reasons for the low level of achievement in English language.
1.5.2 Second: Discussion of the Results of the Second Question:
What are the projected cures for the reading problems in English the secondary students?
- Due to the teaching methods came in third place where the percentage of response was 86.50%. This demonstrates that designing teaching aids and using them plays an important role in reading difficulties.
- The researcher attributes this result to the lack of modern teaching methods and some of them are inappropriate to the characteristics of the students, also some teachers using Pakistan ‘sic during the lesson.
- A related study is Al-Kilani and Maqutash (2002) which observed that the solution must be realistic for the time it requires. That is, in considering suitable methods of adjusting to individual differences in reading, the time it requires become very important.
- This goes in the line with Al-Khaseefan (2000) study which noted that a high percentage of teachers did not use good teaching methods that guides students identify the difficult words and organize what they read by summarizing and remembering the reading passage in both loud reading and silent reading.
- Finally, total score of the reading difficulties that faced 10th grade students as perceived by teachers of English and students in Okara District due to teaching aids came in the first place. This indicates that reading difficulties due to teaching methods has a very high effect on reading difficulties from the perception of 10th grade students and teachers of English.
- The researcher attributes this result to the fact that teaching aids rarely exist in many schools, and the used aids do not give the student an adequate opportunity to participate and interact.
- This is in harmony with Al-Ageel (2006) who showed that one of the most important reasons for the reading difficulty among pupils is the lacking of private labs in their schools.
- This agreed also with Khankar study in (2002) showed that there are lack of using the teaching aids in schools like educational films and other aids.
1.5.3 Third: Discussion of the Results of the Third Question:
What are the difficulties in reading English that faced the 10th graders students?
- Are there any significant differences in the reading difficulties as perceived by 10th grade students in Okara District due to gender?
- After analyzing the data, it was found that there are no statistically significant differences in means that at (p value = 0.05) in reading difficulties (reading behavior) as perceived by 10th grade students in Okara District due to gender.
- Moreover, there are differences that are statistically significant in reading difficulties as perceived by 10th grade English students (females and males) in Okara District, in the domains: teaching aid and teaching methods in favor of females.
1.5.4 Fourth: Discussion of the Results of the Four Question:
Are there any important differences in reading English difficulties, as perceived by 10th grade Students?
- The study results show that there are no differences that are statistically significant on level (0.05) in reading difficulties as perceived by teachers of English (female and male) Okara District, in the domains content, teaching aid, teaching methods and total degree.
Findings of the study clarified that reading difficulty is due largely to educational factors and there is no single cause for reading difficulty, the difficulty is due to a composite of related conditions. However, the results show differences in percentages and means for the different variables.
The researcher mentioned different ways that can be effective remedies for reading difficulty. Most of these ways can be created by the teacher of English and the student in the learning process.
Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are proposed:
- Teaching courses for the teachers to implement effective modern teaching strategies to promote reading skill by them such as group communication, narration, storytelling, Self-questioning, Activating Background Knowledge.
- Enriching and reinforcing the English language curricula with different type of reading that include group communication, narration, storytelling, Self-questioning, Activating Background Knowledge.
- Supplying secondary schools with English language laboratories and learning center, for accomplishing the different reading tasks from native sources.
- Research should be conducted to determine the most appropriate teaching methods to revoke the reading problems.
- Further research should be conducted to study the reading difficulties in English from the perspective of the students and their parents.
- The Ministry of education should support teachers with all materials, aids, sources they may need to avoid reading difficulty.
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QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS
Tick the relevant box: (SA=Strongly Agree, A= Agree, U= Undecided, D= Disagree, SD= Strongly Disagree)
|1||Students show the Inability to distinguish sounds.||Yes||No||To some content|
|2||Students Read texts in an Intermittent way.||Yes||No||To some content|
|3||Students feel shame during the practice of reading.||Yes||No||To some content|
|4||Students show the Inability to pronounce the letters.||Yes||No||To some content|
|5||Students tend to forget the forms of words that have already been learned.||Good||Normal||Bad|
|6||Students tend to Ignore reading English at home.||SA||A||U||D||SD|
|7||Students Lack of self-motivation.||SA||A||U||D||SD|
|8||Students show the Inability to correct the errors.||SA||A||U||D||SD|
|9||Students tend to stutter in the pronunciation of words.||SA||A||U||D||SD|
|10||Students have little knowledge of English vocabulary.||SA||A||U||D||SD|
|11||Students tent to write the pronunciation of the English word in Pakistan ‘sic.||SA||A||U||D||SD|
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHER
Tick the relevant box
(SA=Strongly Agree, A= Agree, U= Undecided, D= Disagree, SD= Strongly Disagree)
|1||Teachers should pronounce words clearly.||Yes||No||To some content|
|2||Students Read texts repeatedly.||Yes||No||To some content|
|3||Students read texts loudly to overcome shame during reading.||Good||Poor||Fair|
|4||Teachers should write words on the board to overcome Students Forgetting the forms of words.||Coercive||Coercive||To some content|
|5||Teachers should give students assignments that involve reading English at home.||Yes||No||To some content|
|6||Teachers should improve Students self-motivation.||Yes||No||To some content|
|7||Teachers should increase Students English vocabulary.||Yes||No||To some content|
|8||Containing some mysterious words.||Yes||No||To some content|
|9||Having little exercise about reading.||Yes||No||To some content|
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PARENTS
Tick the relevant box
(SA=Strongly Agree, A= Agree, U= Undecided, D= Disagree, SD= Strongly Disagree)
|1||By which area your children coming for education?||Village||City||Others|
|2||Are your children studying in this school?||Yes||No||To some content|
|3||Are you attending parent teacher meetings held in school?||Yes||No||To some content|
|4||Are you supporting in reading English matters with teachers?||Village||City||Others|
|5||There is a good relationship between parents and school staff?||Good||Normal||Bad|
|6||Can parents help to solve their children in reading English difficulties?||SA||A||U||D||SD|
|7||Parents should be allow to visit in school to check the educational improvement regarding the reading English. Are you agree with it?||SA||A||U||D||SD|
|8||Are your children self-reading at home?||SA||A||U||D||SD|
|9||Students tend to stutter in the pronunciation of words.||SA||A||U||D||SD|